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Pre Diabetes

Prediabetes is a condition where your blood glucose (sugar) levels are higher than normal but haven’t reached the threshold for a diabetes diagnosis. In diabetes, the body doesn’t use insulin properly, leading to elevated glucose levels, which, if not managed, can be harmful over time.

This often precedes Type 2 Diabetes, but it typically doesn’t show symptoms. Surprisingly, around 84 million people aged 20 and above in the U.S. have prediabetes, but a whopping 90% are unaware of their condition.

Symptoms, Causes and Treatment of PreDiabetes

Symptoms 

Prediabetes typically doesn’t exhibit clear symptoms. However, some individuals might notice a condition called acanthosis nigricans, characterized by the development of dark, thick, and velvety patches of skin. This can be associated with insulin resistance and conditions like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

This discoloration usually occurs around your:

  • Elbows
  • Knees
  • Neck
  • Armpits
  • Knuckles

If you’ve been diagnosed with prediabetes, consult your doctor if you experience:

  • Increased Thirst and Hunger: Persistent feelings of thirst and hunger may be indicative.
  • Frequent Urination: If you notice a significant increase in the frequency of urination.
  • Unexplained Weight Loss: Sudden and unexplained weight loss could be a concern.

Complications of PreDiabetes

  •  Heart Disease
  • Stroke

Causes

  • Insulin Resistance: Insulin resistance occurs when your cells don’t respond properly to insulin.
  • Increased Metabolic Disturbance: Increased metabolic disturbance is a result of both worsening hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) and insulin resistance.

Blood Glucose Levels:

  • Normal Fasting Blood Glucose: 99 mg/dL or less.
  • Prediabetes Range: 100 to 125 mg/dL.

Once fasting blood glucose exceeds 125 mg/dL, a diabetes diagnosis is made. Regular monitoring is essential for managing prediabetes.

Risk Factors

  • You are overweight or obese.
  • You have a parent or sibling who has diabetes.
  • You had diabetes during pregnancy (called Gestational Diabetes) or have a baby who weighed more than 9 pounds at birth.
  • You are African American, Native American, Latin American, or Asian/Pacific Islander.
  • You have high blood pressure (above 140/90 mm Hg).
  • You have polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

Treatment for PreDiabetes

  • Eat a healthy diet and Lose Weight. Losing 5% to 10% of your weight can make a huge difference.
  • Exercise. Pick something you enjoy, like walking. Try to get at least 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week. You can start with less time and work your way up to a half-hour if you need to. Check with your doctor before you do more than that.
  • Stop smoking.
  • Get your blood pressure and cholesterol under control.
  • Take medication like metformin to lower your blood sugar if you’re at high risk of diabetes.

Reducing Pre Diabetes Risks:

Making changes in these areas can often bring blood sugar levels back to a healthy range. Consider:

  • Work with a nutritionist or dietitian to plan a healthful diet you can stick with long-term.
  • Find ways to reduce or manage stress.
  • Quit smoking and limit alcohol.
  • Diagnose and treat sleep disorders.
  • Manage related disorders, such as high cholesterol and high blood pressure.
  • Find support groups where you can meet other people going through the same challenges.

Medicines for Prediabetes:

Your doctor might recommend metformin, a medication used for diabetes, to help prevent the progression from prediabetes to diabetes.

Pre Diabetes Tests

  1. Haemoglobin A1C test : The A1C test checks your average blood sugar level over the past 3 months. It’s also known as the glycosylated haemoglobin or A1C test. Unlike some tests, you don’t need to fast before it, and you can take it at any time.
  2. Fasting Plasma Glucose Test: During a fasting plasma glucose (FPG) test, a doctor will ask you to fast for 8 hours or overnight. Before you eat, a healthcare professional will take a blood sample for testing.
  3. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test:An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) also requires fasting. A doctor will check your blood glucose levels twice, once at the beginning of the appointment and then 2 hours later after you drink a sugary drink.

Conclusion

Now that you know about Type 1 Diabetes, treatments, and Side effects. For a detailed Diet Consultation feel free to reach out to us.

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