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Fitness Diabetes – Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

Diabetes – Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

Introduction

Diabetes is a metabolic disorder that affects how the body regulates blood sugar (glucose). This can happen due to poor insulin sensitivity or insufficient insulin production by the pancreas.

Insulin, produced by the pancreas, helps glucose enter cells for energy. In diabetes, either there’s insufficient insulin or it isn’t used effectively, causing glucose to remain in the blood instead of entering cells.

Diabetes increases the risk of eye, kidney, nerve, heart problems, and certain cancers. Preventing or managing it can reduce these risks.

Types of Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition where the immune system attacks and permanently damages the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas.

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes begins with insulin resistance, where the body can’t use insulin effectively. This leads to increased insulin production by the pancreas, eventually causing high blood sugar when insulin production can’t keep up.

The precise cause of type 2 diabetes is not known, but contributing factors may include:

  1. Genetics
  2. Living a more inactive or less physically active lifestyle.
  3. Higher weight or obesity

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational diabetes occurs during pregnancy and usually goes away after birth. However, it increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes later. Sometimes, diabetes diagnosed during pregnancy is actually type 2 diabetes.

Pre Diabetes

Prediabetes means your blood sugar is higher than normal but not as high as in type 2 diabetes. It raises your risk of developing type 2 diabetes and heart disease.

Other Types of Diabetes

Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA)

It is a form of autoimmune diabetes that starts in adulthood and typically doesn’t require insulin for at least the first six months after diagnosis.

Neonatal diabetes

Neonatal diabetes is a rare form of diabetes that appears within the first six months of life. It can be permanent or transient, with some cases resolving but potentially returning later in life.

Symptoms and Causes

Symptoms

  1. Excessive Thirst and Hunger
  2. Frequent Urination
  3. Drowsiness or Fatigue
  4. Dry, Itchy Skin
  5. Blurry Vision
  6. slow-healing wounds

Causes

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes happens when your immune system attacks and destroys the insulin-producing cells in your pancreas.

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes occurs when your body doesn’t produce enough insulin or your cells don’t respond well to insulin.

Insulin Resistance

This diabetes often starts with insulin resistance, where your body’s cells don’t use insulin effectively. This leads to higher insulin production by the pancreas. Eventually, the pancreas can’t keep up, causing high blood sugar levels.

Gestational Diabetes

Overweight or obese women may have insulin resistance before pregnancy, and excessive weight gain during pregnancy can contribute to gestational diabetes.

Diagnosis and Tests

Test TypeIn-rangePre DiabetesDiabetes
Fasting Blood Glucose TestLess than 100 mg/dL100 to 125 mg/dL126 mg/dL or higher
Random Blood Glucose TestN/A (no specific range)N/A (no specific range)200 mg/dL or higher (with symptoms)
A1cLess than 5.7%5.7% to 6.4%6.5% or higher

Treatment for Diabetes

Basic Treatment for all Diabetics

  1. Healthy Eating
  2. Physical Eating

Treatment For Type 1 Diabetes

It includes insulin injections or insulin pump usage, regular blood sugar monitoring, and carbohydrate counting. In some cases, pancreas or islet cell transplants may be considered.

Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes

Metformin is often the first medication prescribed for type 2 diabetes. It lowers glucose production in the liver and improves the body’s response to insulin. Other treatments may also include lifestyle changes, blood sugar monitoring, and additional medications or insulin as needed.

Treatment for Gestational  Diabetes

Controlling blood sugar during gestational diabetes is crucial for your baby’s health and safe delivery. Treatment includes a healthy diet, exercise, and blood sugar monitoring. Insulin or oral medications may also be needed in some cases.

Treatment for Pre Diabetes

To treat prediabetes, focus on healthy lifestyle choices like exercise and a balanced diet. Aim for 150 minutes of exercise weekly and aim to lose about 7% of your body weight to prevent or delay type 2 diabetes.

Diet Tips

  1. Choose healthier carbohydrates
  2. Eat less salt
  3. Eat less red and processed meat
  4. Eat more fruit and vegetarian
  5. Choose healthier fats
  6. Cut down on added sugar
  7. Be smart with snacks
  8. Make Salads Easier
  9. Get your minerals and vitamins from foods
  10. Physically Active

  Conclusion

       Now that you know about the types of diabetes, treatments, and some useful resources for implementation, you can start right away. If you need further assistance, feel free to reach out to us.

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